This year has been all about molecular biology, studying its possibilities and how scientists have used simple organisms to perform work on a cellular level. In November, we performed bacterial transformations where we shoved a plasmid into E Coli that enabled it to change color. Then, we performed restriction enzyme digests on a plasmid and inserted a gene that changed its color and enabled it to grow on antibiotic resistant media. I gave the students an article on CRISPR prior to our last round of experiments to peak their interest in the potential of gene therapy. Fast forward a few months later when a new collaboration will have us doing CRISPR experiments in lab.
I was recently in a meeting with our outreach director talking about this project, and she asked me why I’m doing this. I simply replied, “Why not?” But allow me to back up.
CRISPR is a breakthrough technology that is essentially a set of DNA scissors that can be directed to cut genes at certain points. CRISPR (which stands for Clustered Regularly Interspersed Short Palindromic Repeats) utilizes an enzyme called Cas9 that was originally found in bacteria to make the cuts and offers a potential opportunity to edit genes in vivo, enabling scientists to remove harmful genes that could at some point cause diseases like cancer. There are obviously a host of ethical and legal debates that can stem from this technology, but we will put those aside for now and focus on the project we are doing in lab.
Much of molecular biology in a lab setting involves utilizing organic macromolecules to perform work in cells, enabling scientists to see the effect that altering and manipulating pathways have on various levels of the cell (global and/or local). Practically, this gets done by adding small volumes of liquid containing sensitive reagents to other small volumes of liquid containing different sensitive reagents. The nice thing about these experiments is that if students have performed one of these assays, they can basically perform a majority of all molecular biology assays, including CRISPR.
CRISPR is arguably the hottest area of biology right now. Do a google search for it and a litany of articles will pop up from a variety of non-industry sources. It seems that any news source worth their clicks has had an article detailing the many cool aspects of this emergent technology. Further, there is a nifty beginner CRISPR kit available on Odin, a great website/store for amateur scientists that sells an inexpensive molecular biology kit with the real reagents.
So, given its popularity, and given that my students have already done similar experiments, why not do this in the classroom?
For me, this is the fun part of doing deep dives into a given content area. By spending a while in a given field, it provides the opportunities to build the background necessary to do experiments that are going on in labs right now. Restriction enzymes were an extremely hot advancement back in the late 60’s, and it took nearly 3 decades for them to appear in high school classrooms. With the products currently available and with the proper knowledge base, it is possible to have students learn about something that scientists are feverishly studying right now, which consistently excites curious minds. Students are inevitably more engaged when they realize that the projects they are working on have concrete links to real world phenomena.
Since my students only meet with me for 2 hours a week, it has taken a while to get to this point, but it is quite feasible that a student can go from extracting DNA from strawberries to CRISPR in a matter of 4-6 weeks. If you are interested in learning how, I will be posting the unit plan summaries over the course of the next couple months.